1HEADQUARTERS, FIRST DIVISION, EIGHTH ARMY CORPS
Manila, Philippine Islands,
August 1st 1899
Department of the Pacific.
I have the honor to submit the following report of
the operations of an expedition to Santa Cruz in the Province of La
Santa Cruz, the richest and most important city of
La Laguna Province, is situated on a neck of land on the
southeastern shore of "Laguna de Bay", and is the outlet for the
produce of the rich country to the south and southeast.
The insurgents were reported here in force and full
of confidence, and, in compliance with the verbal instructions of
the General, Commanding the Department, this expedition was
organized. Its purposes were:
FIRST, The capture of Santa Cruz, and if possible to
cut off the enemy's retreat.
2SECOND, Destruction of the telegraph lines.
THIRD, The distribution among the inhabitants of the country of
copies of the United States Commissioners proclamation.
FOURTH, The location and capture of launches or gun-boats in the
hands of the insurgents.
FIFTH, After the capture of Santa Cruz, the country and towns to the
east end north along the coast of the lake, were to be
SIXTH, All this having been accomplished, it was contemplated to
re-embark and make a leading and advance upon Calamba.
The expedition was to be limited in strength to approximately 1,500
men. It was to be transported to its destination in cascos towed by
steam launches up the Pasig river and on the lake. The hour of
departure and destination were to be withheld, but the former was to
be fixed so that the journey might be made during the night,
arriving at the point of landing at or before daylight.
To carry out the verbal instructions from the Department Commander
in detail, the following order was promulgated:
3Hdqrs. lst Division 8th Army Corps,
Manila, P.I., April 6th, 1899.
The following named organizations will be
immediately prepared to take the field on a special expedition.
They will be equipped in light marching order and will be
supplied with 200 rounds of ammunition per man and ten days'
rations, two of which will be "travel rations", and will be
carried in the haversack,
4th U.S. Cavalry, Gale's Troops C, G,& L, 219 men.
14th U.S. Infantry, Patton's Battalion, Co's C D E & I,
4th U.S. Infantry, Hasbrouck's Battalion Co's. A,G,L,& K
1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry, Linck's Battalion, Co's.,
A, C, D,& F, 225 men.
1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry, Fraine's Battalion
Co's., C, D, I,& K, 248 men.
2 mountain guns, (Hawthorne's Battery) Lt.
Koehler,Commanding, with necessary equipment &c and sixty rounds
of ammunition for each piece (shell and shrapnel) 16 men.
For the purpose of this expedition the authorized
Sharpshooters whose names have been reported to these
headquarters, with the officers selected to command them, will
be temporarily organized as follows:
First Company,14th US Infantry, nine squads, forty five
enlisted men, and 4th Cavalry, three squads, fifteen enlisted
men, commanded by 1st Lt. W. C. Geiger, 14th Infantry, sixty men
1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry, eight squads, forty
enlisted :men, commanded by 1st Lt. W.J. Gruschus, 1st. North
Dakota Vol. Infantry.
1st Idaho Volunteer infantry, eight squads, forty enlisted men,
commanded by 1st Lt. R.H, Hartman, 1st Idaho Vol. infantry.
1st Washington Volunteer Infantry, twelve squads, sixty enlisted
men, commended by 1s Lt. W.E. Weigle and 2nd Lt. R. T. Hazzard,
1st Washington Vol. Infantry.
Making a total of
With the exception
of those belonging to the 1st Washington Volunteer Infantry,
sharpshooters will remain for rations with their respective
campanies, and those detached from the companies not taking pert
in this expedition will be assigned for rations to companies of
their regiments above designated, but will be held under charge
of squad leaders and the officers assigned to command them, in
readiness to respond promptly to cells for service in their
detachment will be equipped as a separate company.
1st Washington Volunteer infantry is assigned to command the
battalion of sharpshooters.
Charles King, U.S.Volunteers, is assigned to command the forces
as thus organized, and will report in person to the Major
General Commanding the Division for detailed instructions.
and Medical Departments, and Signal Corps, will furnish the
necessary personnel and material.
are charged with the concentration of the troops of their
respective commands at a point and time to be designated by
telegraph from these Headquarters.
other then by boat, will be provided except from camp to place
of embarkation. As the journey by boat will probably be made
during the night, company commanders will arrange to have coffee
made and served during the night or just before landing, which
will doubt less occur about daylight or before.
It is the desire of
the Major General Commanding the Division that this expedition
have a thorough and complete organization, and, to that end, the
companies will be divided into squads, and non-commissioned
officer as chief will be assigned to the charge of each. This
assignment to squads will be made permanent, and the men will
remain attached to the squads to which they are assigned, except
when changed by direction of the company commander, and the
chief of squad will keep in his possession a list of names of
the men of his squad, and he shall know at all times the
whereabouts of each man and be able to account for them.
In battle, the men
of each squad will constitute "comrades in battle" and will
support and assist each other; in no case will a man be
abandoned except when specially so directed by the company
commander in each case. When a member of a squad is killed,
wounded or otherwise disabled, the fact will be immediately
reported by the chief of squad to his next superior. In case it
becomes necessary to detach individual men from squads, they
will be sent in pairs and the chief of squad will know that all
of his men are accounted for.
6One of the purposes
of this expedition is the fulfillment of a desire and
determination the United States Government to prove to, and
reassure the Filipinos that a Campaign conducted by Americans,
through a hostile country, can and will be prosecuted according
to the most generous rules of civilized warfare. To this end,
General Orders No. 7, series 1898, and No. 7, current series,
these Headquarters, and paragraph 2, General Orders, No. 15,
current series, Headquarters Department of the Pacific and
Eighth Army Corps, will be rigorously enforced.
Captain F. Grant,
Utah Volunteer Light Artillery, is assigned to command the
gunboats forming a part of this expedition; he will also
arrange, prescribe and superintend the formation of the flotilla
and the order of sailing of the same, taking due and proper
precautions against accident.
During the absence
of the Major General Commanding the Division, on this
expedition, the line of intrenchments from Pasig to Pasay, will
be in charge of Brigadier General Samuel Ovenshine,
U.S.Volunteers, commanding 2nd Brigade, Who will assume control
of all the troops remaining of the First Division.
By command Major General Lawton,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Subsequent to the issue of the
above order, verbal instructions were given placing Major D. W.
Figgins, 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry, in command of the designated
battalion of that regiment, and detailing 1st Lt. E. E. Southern,
1st 7Washington Volunteer Infantry, to command the :Fourth Company of
sharpshooters, in place of 1st Lt. Weigle, of the same regiment.
Captain W. W. Mc.Cammon,
14th U.S. Infantry, commanding that regiment, by virtue of
seniority, accompanied the 2nd Battalion of his regiment.
Major Herbert Cardwell,
Division Surgeon, U.S .Volunteers, as Chief Surgeon of the Division,
provided an efficient corps of medical officers and hospital men.
(see appendix 1.-). Chinese coolies were supplied for litter
bearers, thus increasing the efficiency of the Hospital Corps
The United States Army
gunboats "Laguna de Bay", "Napindan" and "Oeste" had been assigned
to duty with the expedition.
On the evening of April
7th the following message was sent Brigade Commanders:
Division 8th A. C.
April 7th 1899
The Division Commander directs that troops selected for duty
with the expeditionary brigade will be reported to
Brigadier General King at San Pedro Macati promptly a 4 o'clock
P.M., to-morrow the 8th instant and will embark
About sunset all the troops were embarked on eight
launches, seventeen cascos and two bancos and the journey up the
river commenced. Owing to the winding, narrow channel, inexperienced
pilots and frequent grounding of launches and cascos, the journey to
the lake consumed the night; through the indefatigable efforts of
Captain Grant, (see appendix 10 page 11) the entire flotilla was
formed at 4 o'clock A. M., and the start up the lake was made. (See
appendix 2 page 2.)
At 10/30 A.M., the flotilla assembled off Santa Cruz
and the following plan of attack was communicated to the command,
On board U.S.Launch "Maria"
Off Santa Cruz, P.I., 10/30 A.M., April 9th/1899
General Field Orders
The gunboat "Laguna de Bay" will take position north and a
little east of Santa Cruz, the "Napindan" south of west of the
city, the "Oeste" directly in front and opposite wharf of city.
The disposition and operations of these gunboats will be under
charge of Capt. F. A. Grant, Utah Vol.
under command of Major Weisenburger 1st Washington Vol.
Infantry, will land under the guns and opposite the position of
the Napindan. These troops will
be first to debark. They will be supported and immediately
followed by the two battalions of the 14th U.S. Infantry. The
North Dakotas will land on the left and the Idahos on the right
flank of the 14th Infantry, protecting its adjacent flank.
embarkation will be under the immediate charge of Brigadier
General Charles King, U. S .Volunteers.
The 4th Cavalry
squadron will be towed to a point near the position assigned the
gunboat Laguna de Bay, to be debarked at such point, under the
protection of that gunboat, as may be determined after the
landing of the 14th Infantry Battalions has been accomplished.
By command :Major General Lawton.
Ass't. Adjutant General.
The landing was
accomplished with much difficulty owing to the stiff breeze blowing
and consequent rough sea. many of the men were compelled to wade
ashore, through water at first shoulder deep.
After landing, the
command under Major Weisenburger, the senior officer, advanced a
short distance, according to plan. Almost immediately a sharp
fire was developed on 10their right; the enemy was routed with loss,
leaving ten dead; darkness coming on the troops bivouaced for the
night on the lines. (See appendices
10 page 12;
14 p 19;
34 p 59;
p 72; 34 p 77).
Along the north of the
city, the enemy was in force and well fortified. In view of the near
approach of darkness, a landing was not attempted. However, verbal
instructions were given, and dispositions made for the landing of
Gale's squadron and the attack on the north side of the town. (See
appendix 17 p 24.)
During a personal
examination of the condition of the command, made after night-fall,
it was ascertained that General King was so seriously ill that he
had been unable to land with his command, and that he would probably
not be able to participate in any part of the expeditions (See
The immediate command
of the line was assumed by myself; General King was authorized to
return to his Headquarters, (see
appendix 6) and the next officer
in rank, Major Weisenburger was verbally appointed to the command of
the Provisional Brigade.
At day-break next
morning, the 10th instant, the troops were at once put into
position, three companies on
11the right of the road loading north
toward the town, the remainder extending to the left until the flank
rested on the beach. The Artillery moved along the road
by Company "I" 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry. The advance toward the
city was immediately taken up.
The illness of General
King caused much embarrassment, some confusion and delay, but thanks
to the energy and efficiency of my staff officers, this was soon
overcome. To Major Clarence R. Edwards, Assistant Adjutant General
was intrusted the center of our advancing line, and Major Charles G.
Starr, Inspector General, conducted the left flank. These gallant
officers, fully alive to the responsibilities resting upon them,
were equal to the occasion, and no line of battle could have been
more courageously or intelligently led, as the results proved. I
desire to commend these officers in the highest terms for the
gallant work done by them on this occasion. It must be understood
that no transportation accompanied the expedition, officers were all
on foot and carried on their back all their supplies and equipments.
Still these officers moved from point to point, where their
presence was required, led in the charge and in the advance
difficult and dangerous places, keeping the line continuous,
unbroken, moving continually, driving and destroying the enemy at
every point. I especially commend these officers for conspicuous
gallantry on this occasion.
To Major Weisenburger I
wish to express my appreciation of his valuable services.
More or less opposition
was encountered, but when the large bridge crossing the river in the
edge of the city was approached, the enemy was developed in strong
force, entrenched end occupying well fortified positions. Without
hesitation Captain Hasbrouck and his battalion of the 14th Infty.,
the Washington Sharpshooters and some of the Idaho Battalion charged
across the bridge and completely routed the insurgents. At the same
time, the troops on both sides of the bridge waded rapidly across
the river and engaged the enemy at close range, inflicting severe
lose. (See appendices 10 p 13;
15 p 20;
34 p 60;
34 p 73;
34 p 79;
34 p 88.)
Under cover of the fire
of the gunboat "Napindan" the cavalry had landed and charged the
trenches on the water front as planned. (See appendices
10 p 13;
p 24.) The enemy was driven back out of these trenches into
the city against out main line, which advancing from the south had
just 13crossed the river and entered the city as above described. The
only means of escape was toward the northeast in which direction the
insurgents fled in great disorder. In doing so they were exposed not
only to the fire of our land forces but also to a very effective
fire from the machine guns on the boats. (See appendices
11 p 15;
p 17.) Ninety-three insurgent dead were picked up on the
streets and on the open ground northeast of the city and buried.
Thirty of their wounded were captured and taken in hospital, where
three shortly afterward died. Forty-one other prisoners were
captured and, with the exception of a few, were afterwards given
their freedom. (See appendix 10 p 14.) Many of the dead and wounded
of the enemy were undoubtedly carried away by their comrades or
escaped discovery in the thickets where much of the fighting was
done and which also flanked their avenue of escape from the city.
Forty -two dead insurgents were subsequently found in these thickets
and buried by our troops. (See Appendix
30 page 50.)
Our casualties were
three enlisted men, 14th Infantry, two enlisted men 1st Idahos and
one officer and one enlisted man, 4th Cavalry, wounded. None killed,
none missing. See appendices 15 p 21;
17 p 25;
14The prisoners and
wounded of both, armies were sent to Manila the night after the
The Honorable H. A.
Ramsden, H.B.M Vice Consul at Manila, had presented credentials from
the Military Governor and accompanied the Division Headquarters from
that city. (See appendix 21. He participated in the engagement
resulting in the occupation of Santa Cruz, and was
of great assistance during the entire expedition. His thorough
knowledge of the Spanish language and of the characteristics of the
natives, was of much aid in securing information from captives and
It was learned that
with the exception of the few Chinese shopkeepers whom we found in
the city, all the inhabitants had fled to the mountains on the day
previous. The Provincial Governor and Commandant of the insurgent
forces had also made his escape before we landed. His immediate
subordinate in military command, a colonel whose name was not
learned, is reported to have died fighting in the trenches south of
established in the Governor's palace, and proper disposition was
made of the troops for 15the night.
The following order was
1st Division 8th A. C.
Santa Cruz, April l0th 1899. 2, PM
General Field Order
(1) This command with the exception of the 4th U.S. Cavalry will
be prepared for marching orders early to-morrow morning. Two
days' cooked rations will be taken in haversacks. It is probable
that no access to the cascos can be hed until the night of the
(2) Major Weisenburger, 1st Washington Volunteer Infantry is
assigned to the command of the expeditionary brigade.
Major General Lawton;
CLARENCE EDWARDS ,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Captain Gale as Provost
Marshal, with his dismounted squadron as Provost Guard, protected
the houses and such property as were left in the city from injury
and removal. (see appendix 8, page 9) No burning of houses or
looting of property occurred.
The proclamation of the
United States Commission, (see appendix
36) was freely distributed
in the houses of the city, to be found by the inhabitants on their
return, and, as opportunity offered, distribution outside our lines
The telegraph line
running south from Santa Cruz was destroyed for more than a mile and
so much of it as followed the main road northward was left to be
utilized by us on our advance. (See appendix
10 p. 14.)
From a prisoner it was
learned that the steam launches and other water craft in the
posession of the insurgents had been
concealed in a navigable river near Pagsanjan, an important town
about five miles northeast of Santa Cruz. It was believed that the
remnant of the enemy which escaped from Santa Cruz had fallen back
to Pagsanjan. The latter point thus became the next objective, and
the following orders were issued:
S. Forces ,
Santa Cruz, P.I.,
April 10th 1800.
General Field Orders
The command will march at 6 A.M., to-morrow the 11th instant,
with two days' cooked rations in haversack. The direction will
be toward Pagsanjan. The order of march rill be as follows:
Sharpshooters in advance, 14th infantry, Idaho Volunteer
Infantry battalion and North Dakota Volunteer infantry
battalion. The Artillery will march in rear of the 14th
Infantry. The greatest, precaution will be observed
advance. In case the enemy is met and if it is necessary to
deploy the column, the 14th Infantry will deploy to the right
and left of the road, center resting on the road. The artillery
will form in the center of the 14th Infantry and will be
supported by the left company of the right battalion of that
regiment. The Idaho battalion will deploy to the right of the
14th infantry and push well to the front: The North Dakota
Volunteer Infantry battalion will deploy to the left of the 14th
Infantry, also pushing well to the front.
The effort will be
to make a wheel to the right and left. The right wing making a
left wheel and the left wing making a right wheel. The idea
being to encompass or surround the town.
By command Major General Lawton.
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS
Assistant Adjutant General.
were given for the gunboats to proceed before daybreak to the mouth
of the Pagsanjan river and remove the obstructions placed near there
by the insurgents. (See appendix
10 p 14.) After this was
accomplished, the gunboats were to come up the river and co-operate
with the land forces, which would leave Santa Crux shortly after
day-break, and move by the main road northeastward toward Pagsanjan.
The advance of the gunboats up the river was prevented by the bar
which the obstructions had caused across
18the channel at the mouth of
the river. (See appen'dx.22 p.31.)
The movement of the
land forces was made as planned, leaving Santa Cruz shortly after
day-break; Captain Gale and his squadron remaining in the city as a
After advancing along
the main road about two miles our scouts developed the enemy
strongly entrenched across the road and along an adjacent open
field. The column promptly deployed, the artillery brought into
action, as had been contemplated and directed in General Field
Orders No. 3, given above. The enemy fled precipitately as
soon as the artillery opened on them. The insurgent loss was
reported as eight dead, left on the field. Our casualty was let
Lieut. E. E. Southern, 1st Washingtons, severe wound, right arm.
(See Appen'd's. 23 p 32;
25 p 36;
34 p 60,
The advance was resumed
toward Pagsanjan and the town occupied without further resistance.
(See Appen'd'cs. 23 p 32,
34 p 61.)
With the exception of
two Spaniards who claimed to have escaped from the insurgents, and a
few chinese, the town was entirely deserted.
The steam launches
"Orani" and "El Capitan" and casco No 689, were found in the river,
at the town. The 19other launches were reported by a prisoner to
have been moved farther up the river, and to have on them two
machine guns. Major Clarence R. Edwards, Ass't. Adj't. Gen'l., was
sent up the river with the North Dakota Battalion to secure these
Launches and bring them down to the town. This was done without
casualty, and to the two launches round at the town, were added four
more, viz., "Covadonga" "Nueva Ecija" "Suerte" and "Oceania",
also casco No 1888. (See Appendices
34 p 61;
34 p 84.)
Companies C. & E. 14th
Infantry, and the Washington Sharpshooters , were sent down the
south bank of the river to meet the gunboats and assist in removing
the obstructions near the mouth of the river. After proceeding about
2 miles they were fired on by insurgents concealed in a church on
the north side of the river in the small town, Lumban. The river at
that point is not fordable and the ferry had been destroyed before
the arrival of our troops, who, being: unable to cross the river,
engaged the enemy from the south bank. By a well directed fire, the
insurgents were dispersed. (See Appendices
25 p 36;
34 p 61, 62.)
Shortly afterwards, the Idahos who crossed on cascos farther up,
arrived and occupied
the town. (See Appen'd'cs 25 p 32;
34 p 84.)
20The command on the
south bank then continued down the river to the obstructions. (see
Appen'd'x. 25 p 36.) Captain Hasbroucks battalion of the 14th
Infantry, was sent down to, and occupied a position across
from Lumban where the main road crossed the river. (See appen'd'cs.
34 p 62;
34 p 79.) Company "I" 14th Infty., Lt. Field Commanding,
remained at Pagsanjan as Provost Guard. (See Appendx.
34 p 73.)
Meanwhile the gunboats
had engaged a force of the enemy at the mouth of the river and
routed them, (See appendx.22.)
The captured launch
"Orani" was manned by a soldier crew and ran down the river to a
point near the obstructions, the night of April 11th. On the day
following, the remainder of the launches and the cascos were brought
down under the supervision of Captain Grant. (See appendx.23 p 32.)
In this work the gunboat "Napindan" 2nd Lt. Thomas Franklin, 23rd
U.S. Infantry, Commanding, rendered great assistance, that gunboat
having been able to pass over the bar and come up the river after
the obstructions had been removed the morning of the 12th instant.
21It was found that there
was not sufficient water on the bar to permit the passage of the
captured launches into the lake. A dredge was accordingly sent
out by order of the Department Commander. Arriving the 12th instant,
it was set to work cutting a channel through the bar. ( See
Appendices 23 p 33;
24 p 34.)
A ferry having been improvised at Lumban, the Artillery,
Sharpshooters, Hasbrouck's Battalion of the 14th Infantry and 1st
North Dakotas were crossed to the north side of the river April 12th
and with the 1st Idahos proceeded to Longos, a lake side village of
some size, without meeting any opposition. (See appendices
30 p 49;
34 p 62;
34 p 74,
34 p 82,
Capt. Pattons battalion, with the exception of Co. "D" which acted
as support for the Artillery, was concentrated at the mouth of the
river where it remained guarding the
dredges until the close of the expedition. (Appen' dcs .34 p 62;
With a view to securing
a good place to re-embark the troops for the movement on Calamba,
the North Dakota Battalion was sent from Longos shortly after noon
the 12th instant to reconnoiter the town of Paete, located about
four miles further north on the lake shore, where it could be
reported a good landing place could be
22found. After advancing about
one mile the enemy was discovered entrenched across the road, and
immediately opened fire from behind almost impenetrable undergrowth,
on the mountain side. (See append'cs.
34 p 63;
34 p 85.) Major
Fraine, promptly disposed his command to execute a flank movement on
the enemy, who were pouring heavy fire into the advance guard, four
of them were killed and three wounded, one mortally, of these, the
latter and three killed belonged to a party of five flankers who had
been sent up the hillside. Their surviving comrade, Private Thomas
Sletteland, Co. "C" 1st North Dakotas, remained with them and by his
cool and unerring aim successfully held the enemy back until
reinforcements came. Then after carrying his wounded comrade to the
rear, he assisted in recovering the bodies of the killed, (See
Appendices 27 p 41;
34 p 85, 86.) He has been recommended for a
medal of honor.
At the first sound of
firing, Lieut. William Brooke, 4th U. S. Inftys: (Now Captain 35th
U.S. Vol. Infantry,) Aid-de-camp, was sent to ascertain in the
cause. He reported the engagement of the North Dakotas and asked for
reinforcements. (See appendices 26 p 38,
30 p 51.)
23The Artillery with its
support, Co. "D" 14th infantry and the Sharpshooters were
hastened forward under command of Major Weisenburger. (Append'cs.
p 49; 34 p 70;
34 p 86,
Boarding the gunboat
"Laguna de Bay" a position was secured near the beach from which it
was possible to aid the Artillery in shelling the enemy. (Appendix.
30 p 49.)
As our lineadvanced its
flanks were maked by signal flags, carried by Captain E. A. McKenna
and a private U.S. Vol. Signal Corps. (See appendix
After an engagement
lasting about one hour the enemy was driven up the mountain side and
The command then
continued to and occupied Paete without further resistance (Appendix
34 p 86) Here was found a good place for the re-embarkation of
On the 13th instant,
Captain Hasbroucks battalion of the 14th Infantry and the 1st Idahos
were brought forward from Longos. (Appendices
34 p 64;
34 p 79.) Two
tugs were asked for to tow back the dredge and such of the captured
launches as were unable to go in with their own steam. (See Appendix
30 p 50) They were supplied. (See appendix
32 p 53.)
It had been a part of
the original plan to move by
24water to a point near Calamba, and
there debarking the troops to continue our land operations along the
south and west shores of the lake, where many important towns are
located. This plan was changed by the Department Commander, April
15th and the expedition ordered to return to Manila. (Appendx
On the 16th instant the
last of the launches having been brought into the lake, the troops
at Paete, at the mouth of the river, and the garrison at Santa Cruz
were re–embarked on cascos and returned to San Pedro Macati and
Manila, (See appendices 34 p 64,
arriving he 17th Instant.
Appended hereto are
copies of brief reports rendered the Department Commander as
opportunity offered for transmission; of reports of subordinate
commanders; of correspondence, orders, in fact every available
record pertaining to the expedition.
Attention is invited to
final reports of subordinate commanders, which are as a rule so
complete and lucid as to merit especial commendation.
Lists of the names of
officers considered 25entitled to Brevet Commissions "for
distinguished conduct and public service in the presence of the
enemy" and of enlisted men, who are entitled to special
consideration, who have been mentioned in this and accompanying
reports, are submitted as follows:-